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Water treatment has become necessary, especially in arid regions with a scarcity of water resources or high salinity rates that limit agricultural operations. Laboratory experiments were conducted in The On-Farm Irrigation Lab. at Agricultural Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain-Shams University, Egypt, which located at 31°41ʹ42.3”E in longitude and 30°6ʹ44.37”N in latitude. The study aimed to integrate some of the technologies for treating saline water with irrigation systems to add a new advantage to it by providing these systems with the ability to get rid of salts in irrigation water under the same normal operating conditions.
In this work, salt water treatment technologies were used, such as water electrolysis technology, electromagnetic field technology and nanotechnology. Two devices were designed and implemented to apply salt water treatment technologies working theories under the operating conditions of on-farm irrigation systems. The designed devices (Electrolysis Pass (EP) and Electromagnetic Pass (EMP)) were evaluated for their effect on reducing water salinity by changing the system voltage, flow type and water source type. On the other hand, nanotechnology was evaluated by coating EP electrodes with titanat nano-coating through three parameters (EMP+EP (4 coated electrodes), EMP+EP (2 coated and 2 uncoated), EMP+EP (4 uncoated electrodes)). Then the effect of using static magnetic field technology (SMP) was compared with EP and EMP, where they were combined through parameters to evaluate the differences between them (EP, EMP, SMP, EMP+EP and SMP+EP). Finally, the effectiveness of saline water treatment technologies was studied when using different sources of saline water (Simulated Marginal-quality Water (SMW), Sea Water (SW) and Treated Wastewater (TWW)).
In EP evaluation experiments: The results showed that the voltage of 36v achieved salt rejection percentage 1.8%, while the voltage of 12v and 24v achieved salt rejection percentage 1.53% and 1.13%, respectively. While changing the flow type from turbulent to laminar, the water salinity reduction ratio improved from 0.53% to 1.8%.
In the experiments evaluating titanat nano-coating: The parameter (EMP+EP (4 coated electrodes)) achieved the best results for reducing the salinity of water by 3.4%, while the second parameter (EMP+EP (2 coated and 2 uncoated)) achieved salt rejection percentage 2.4%.
In the experiments evaluating the saline water treatment systems under study, the parameter EMP+EP recorded the best results when using all water sources (SMW, SW and TWW).